گیاهان دارویی-طب سنتی
وبلاگ تخصصی گیاهان دارویی
خوش آمدید ........از بخش های مختلف دیدن فرمایید

بازدید : مرتبه
تاریخ : سه شنبه 10 خرداد 1390
مقاله انگلیسی درمورد گیاه دارویی هل

IN THE NAME OF GOD

 

Elettaria cardamomum     

Family : Zingiberaceae

 

Cardamom is a herbaceous biennial or perennial up to 5.5 m tall, with branched subterranean rhizomes. Used for flavouring and medicine.

Principal cardamom production areas are located in India (60% of world production), Guatemala, Tanzania and Sri Lanka. Average yield of dry capsules from a well-maintained carda-mom estate as 112-168 kg/ha. It is of some importance as a cash crop in mid altitudinal isolated places.

 

Economics: Cardamom is an expensive spice, the price being only exceeded among spices by saffron and vanilla.

 

 Cultivation                        

Land:  The main field selected for cardamom plantation is cleared of undergrowth and Pits of about 0.6-0.6 x 0.3 m size are dug with a spacing of 1.5 x 1.5 to 3 x 3 m, depending on the variety. The pits are filled with a mixture of surface soil, compost and cattle manure, 1-2 months in advance of the commence-ment of planting.

 

Multiplication: Cardamom can be propagated vegetatively by division of the rhizomes, or from seedlings, which are usually raised in nurseries. For vegetative propagation, rhizomes from large clumps of growing plants are taken out, separated into small clumps, each consisting of at least one old and one young shoot, and planted in prepared pits. Seeds are slow to germinate.

 

Planting: For large-scale production it is usual to sow selected seeds. For sowing, seeds are collected from high-yielding, healthy plants with compact panicles. Fully matured and ripened capsules are immersed in water for some time, the seeds are extracted by gentle pressing, and the mucilaginous coating is removed by washing in cold water. The seeds are sown immediately after extraction to ensure better germination. The sowing season is September-October or November-December. The seeds are sown in raised seed-beds on which a fine layer of humus-rich soil is spread. For the nursery site, gently sloping land with access to a water source is generally selected. The seeds are either sown in lines or broadcast in beds of 1 x 6 m size raised to 0.3 m; 10 g/m² of seeds are used. The seeds are covered first with a thin layer of sand and later on with paddy straw.

The seeds germinate within 30 days and continue up to 90 days. Six-month-old seedlings are transplanted from the primary nursery to the secondary nursery, where they are allowed to remain for about one year. In the secondary beds there is a spacing of about 0.3 m between plants. (after Hornok L. 1992).

 

Water: The seed beds should be irrigated frequently and overhead shading should also be provided.

 

Fertility: Cardamom responds to fertilizer application; the recommended amounts are: 75 kg/ha of N, 75 kg/ha of P205 and 150 kg/ha of K2O.

 

Weeding: During the first year, frequent weeding is necessary. In older plantations, weeding is restricted to 2-3 per year.

 

Other: Mulching and overhead shade should also be provided for the secondary nursery. Overhead shades are regulated by selective thinning. Wherever required, suitable quick-growing trees are also plant-ed to provide adequate shade. It is often grown under the shade of the primary rainforest.

The old and dry shoots from the plantation are removed and the base of the clumps cleared once a year at the time of weeding, during May-June.

 

Sreeramulu and Bagyaraj 1999 found that inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, in particular {{Glomus monosporum}e}, increased plant growth, dry matter content and uptake of phosphorus.

 

Harvest: The capsules are ready for harvesting by July-August or August-September. The capsules are harvested when they are almost ripe but before they turn yellow. The harvesting season continues up to October--November.

 

 Improvement                       

Varieties:      Two botanical varieties have been recognized, based on the size of the fruit. The var. major Thwaites is the wild cardamom of Sri Lanka. It is a robust plant, about 3 m tall. The fruit, which is larger than that of the other variety, is elongated, 2.5-5.0 cm long, yellowish-green when ripe and darkish-brown when dry. It is known in the trade as 'long wild native cardamom'. The var. cardamomum (syn. var. minor Watt) includes most of the cultivated races. The height varies from 2.5 to 5 m. The fruits, which are about 10-20 mm long, are smaller then those of the other variety above, and are yellowish when dried. It is known as 'true cardamom'. (after Hornok L. 1992).

Processing: The capsules are dried either in the sun or in specially built drying devices varying from sheltered platforms, heated by a slow fire from below, to a large drying house or a kiln heated by flue pipes. The fruits are spread thinly and stirred frequently to ensure uniform drying. Three to five days are required to dry the capsules properly in the sun; under artificial conditions drying may take only 48 hours. The dried capsules are rubbed by hand or with rough coir matting or wire mesh and winnowed to remove foreign matter. The dried and cleaned capsules are graded according to colour and size. (after Hornok L. 1992).

 

Characteristics : The dried fruit of true cardamom contains essential oil, fixed oil, pigments, proteins, cellulose, pentosans, sugars, starch, silica, calcium oxalate and minerals. The principal quality determinant for cardamom is the content and composition of the essential oil, which governs the odour and flavour of the spice. Whole cardamoms usually have essential oil contents in the range 3.5-7%. The major components of cardamom oils are 1,8-cineole (20-60%) and a-terpinyl acetate (20-53%). Other principal components are as follows: linalyl acetate, linalool and borneol, a-terpineol, a-pinene, limonene and myrcene.

The seeds have a pleasant aroma and a characteristic warm, slightly pungent taste. (after Hornok L. 1992).

 

Uses :  It is used for flavouring curries, cakes and bread, and for other culinary purposes. In India, cardamom is used as a masticatory. It is thought to have aphrodisiac properties. Cardamom is official in the British and US Pharmacopoeias and is used as an aromatic stimulant, a carminative and a flavouring agent. The essential oil is used for flavouring processed foods, in perfumery and for flavouring liqueurs and other beverages. (after Hornok L. 1992).

 برای دریافت ترجمه در بخش فرم تماس پیام بگذارید




طبقه بندی: گیاه شناسی و خواص گیاهان دارویی،  مقالات گیاهان دارویی، 
برچسب ها: Elettaria cardamomum، Zingiberaceae، Economics، Cultivation، Land، Multiplication، Planting، Water، Fertility، Weeding، Harvest، Improvement، Varieties، Processing، Characteristics، Uses،
ارسال توسط علی محمدی
آخرین مطالب
آرشیو مطالب
نظر سنجی
از مطالب exsirplantsراضی بودید؟





پیوند های روزانه