Family: Magnoliophyta : Magnoliopsida : Fabales : Fabaceae
Synonyms : Cassia acutifolia Del., Cassia senna L., Senna alexandrina, Senna angustifolia
The crop yields about 1400 kg/ha of leaves and 150 of pods under irrigated conditions. Non-irrigated crops yield less at 500-600 kg of leaves and 80-100 of pods.
Sennosides rank among the important medicines of plant origin. Senna finds a very good demand in local and export markets. About 75% of Indian senna is exported to Europe, Australia, S.E. Asia and the Americas, with UK and USA being among the largest importers. With market demand and a reasonable performance of senna under marginal edaphoclimatic and low input conditions, there is scope for extension of cultivation in areas not suited to agriculture.
Comparative economics on senna in mixed cropping systems have been described by Pareek and Gupta 1984.
The plant has a role as an income-generating crop for arid regions where water is the limiting factor and where wasteland development, desertification control and dune stabilisation are challenges.
It can be grown as a monocrop or a mixed crop with gram, gingelly, chillies, cotton, sesame, mustard and some other vegetables.
Under low input levels senna and mustard, followed by senna and coriander have given maximum profit Pareek and Gupta 1984.
The traditional mechanisation involves two ploughings, harrowing and levelling.
Senna is propagated by seeds at a rate of 27 kg/ha under rainfed conditions and 15 kg/ha when irrigated. The 1000 seed weight is about 30g. Scarification is recommended.
Sowing is traditionally by broadcasting but in-line drilling at 30 cm has been recommended. Generally 2 sowing seasons are recognised; Feb. to March for the irrigated crop and July to Nov. for the winter rainfed crop. germination begins on day 3 and is complete within 2 weeks. The plants are thinned to give an intra-plant spacing of 10-15 cm 4 weeks after planting.
The crop benefits from light irrigation but does not tolerate continuous rain.
Although a legume, it does not form nodules. Therefore, depending on soil conditions, 20 kg of N and 40 kg of P are applied at planting and supplemented with 40-60 kg of N/ha split in 2 applications.
As soon as the seedling emerges 1-2 hoeings are done
Flowering is about 2 months after sowing and the first flush is often removed to produce a high degree of branching.
Senna leaves are ready for harvest after 2 months but leaflets are normally first hand plucked after 3 months when most leaves appear mature, thick and bluish in colour. A second harvest is done a month later and the third, with the pods, from 4-6 weeks later. It is cultivated as an annual but can be left standing for 2-3 years as it is a hardy, deep rooted plant able to survive hot summers. Leaflets contain the highest concentration of sennosides at day 50 Shah et al. 1979.
Depending on the origin, it has been classified as Alexandrian senna (really Cassia acutifoliae), Arabian senna, Mocha senna, Bombay senna, Tinnivelly
Leaves are dried under shade for 7-10 days in a thin, frequently stirred, layer on a hard floor until yellow-green. Pods are lightly beaten to remove the seeds and hung in bunches in well-ventilated shade conditions for 10-12 days to dry. If properly stored under shade, leaves, pods or their powders retain their biological activity even after 5 years.
For therapeutic purposes, Unani and Ayurvedic systems prescribe the infusion of leaves or fruits which are also used in the form of decoction, powder, confection and others. In the Allopathic system, sennosides are dispensed in the form of tablets (30 mg/tablet). A paste is also made from powdered leaves in vinegar and applied externally for some skin ailments.
The produce contains about 2.5% of active principles. leaves and pods have anthraquinone glycosides which are a dianthrone derivative of rhein, an antibiotic, with 2 glycoside units. Rhein is active against Staphylococcus aureus. The catharitic principles are water- and dilute alcohol-soluble. The 2 glycosides, sennoside A and B are believed to be the main laxative principles, having the same formula (C22H33O20), but differing in the manner of linkage to glucose in the aglycone fraction. A is dextro-rotary while B is the meso form and the recently identified sennoside G is the optical antipode to A. Sennoside content in Indian senna is 1.5-3% and the Alexandrian senna 2.5-4.5%. Leaves contain beta-sitosterol, responsible for anti-cancer properties.
The major use is medicinal, specifically for treatment of habitual constipation.
Medicine: In addition to its reputation in the Unani system it has been accepted by various traditional medicine systems of the world including Ayurvedic, Homeopathic and Allopathic medicine.
Senna requires little pesticide application and is neither grazed by cattle nor damaged by birds.
Stagnating soil water provides favourable conditions for root and collar rot (Rhizoctonia spp.). In India the larvae of the white butterfly Catopsilia pyranthe cause damage.
طبقه بندی: مقالات گیاهان دارویی، گیاهان دارویی، درباره کاشت،داشت و برداشت گیاهان،
برچسب ها: Cassia angustifolia، سنا، Cassia acutifolia، Cassia senna، Senna alexandrina، Production، Markets، Economics، Cultivation، Systems، Land، Multiplication، Planting، Water، Fertility، Weeding، Harvest، Varieties، Processing، Characteristics، Pest notes، مقاله انگلیسی، گیاهان دارویی،